Rabu, 02 Desember 2009

The islamic concept of human nature By: Yaseen mohamed


Defenition of fitrah 13
The linguistic meaning of fitrah 14
What is the linguistic meaning of fitrah?
The word of fitrah comes from the arabic radicals, fa ta ra, the verbal noun being fatrun. The root action means, he clave, split.
The religious meaning of fitrah 15
What is The religious meaning of fitrah?
In the context of hadist, according to abu haytam, fitrah means to be born either prosperous or unprosperous
Fitrah and human responsibility 20
What is human responsibility?
Man is responsible for his actions and accountable to allah for every atom of right and wrong that he does.
Alienation from fitrah 22
What is Alienation from fitrah about?
It is about that the central hadist that circumstatial influences cause man to change and become alienated from his fitrah.
The cristian doctrine of oridine sin 25
What is The cristian doctrine of oridine sin?
The cristian doctrin of sin is the cristian is born in sin in an impure state, and cannot redeem himself by his own inner resources, but only through christ.

The interpretation of fitrah 35
classical view of fitrah 36
What is Classical view of fitrah?
The classical view of fitrah
Neo-classical view 51
What is neo-classical view of fitrah?
Positive view that human in state of iman and islam with a problem of kufr.
Modern view (dual view) 55
What is modern view of fitarh?
Dual view that human born preparedness for both iman and kufur
General evaluation 61
What is general evaluation of the interpretation of fitrah?
Man have no inhernt right or wrong in themselves.

A comparison of specific element of dual, neutral and positive view of fitrah 69
what is comparison of specific element of dual, neutral and positive view of fitrah?
Dual view that human born preparedness for both iman and kufur
neutral view that human born in state of ignorance and innoncence-no iman or kufr.
Positive view that human in state of iman and islam with a problem of kufr.
Comparison of the view of various scholars 73
What is Comparison of the view of various scholars about?
They view the evil in man as a force to be countered with innate human goodness.
Conclusion 77

Implications of fitrah 84
The metaphysical Implications of fitrah 85
What is The metaphysical Implications of fitrah?
The implication of the metaphysical of fitrah is that the principle of tawhid is integral to the inborn nature of man.
The epistemological implications of fitrah 91
What is The epistemological implications of fitrah?
The epistemological implications of fitrah is that fitrah and man's relationship with allah cannot be fully understood an understanding meaning of intellect and reason ( aql and heart )
The ethical implications of fitrah 97
What is The ethical implications of fitrah?
The ethical implications of fitrah is that man's worship his creator must be with good ethical as our prophed did
The psycological implications of fitrah 101
What is The psycological implications of fitrah?
The psycological implications of fitrah is that man is born in fitrah, but man also has negative and positive character ( nafs and aql )
The volitional implication of fitrah 114
What is The volitional implication of fitrah?
The volitional implication of fitrah is that the individual must exercise his free will to liberate him self from negative influences of the lower nafs so that he may actualise his fitrah and attain inner peace and happiness.
The legal implications of fitrah 122
What is The legal implications of fitrah?
The legal implications of fitrah is that the child is born a muslim, pure, sinless and predisposed to belief in and worship of the creator.

Intelectual relevance of fitrah 136
The origin secularism in the west 136
What is The origin secularism in the west?
The origin secularism in the west is that the western view of himself and of nature was gradually secularised.
An islamic response to secularism 144
What is islamic response to secularism?
In islam there is not the same distinction between religious and secular.
Secular theories of human nature 151
What is secular theories of human nature?
Secular theories of human nature based on darwin theory of evolution.


Survey! Question! Read! Recite! Review!
Before you read, Survey
the chapter:
the title, headings, and subheadings

captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps

review questions or teacher-made study guides

introductory and concluding paragraphs


while you are surveying:
Turn the title, headings, and/or subheadings into questions;

Read questions at the end of the chapters or after each subheading;

Ask yourself, "What did my instructor say about this chapter or subject when it was assigned?"

Ask yourself, "What do I already know about this subject?"

Note: If it is helpful to you, write out these questions for consideration. This variation is called SQW3R

When you begin to
Look for answers to the questions you first raised;

Answer questions at the beginning or end of chapters or study guides

Reread captions under pictures, graphs, etc.

Note all the underlined, italicized, bold printed words or phrases

Study graphic aids

Reduce your speed for difficult passages

Stop and reread parts which are not clear

Read only a section at a time and recite after each section

after you've read a section:
Orally ask yourself questions about what you have just read
or summarize, in your own words, what you read

Take notes from the text but write the information in your own words

Underline or highlight important points you've just read

Use the method of recitation which best suits your particular learning style but remember, the more senses you use the more likely you are to remember what you read - i.e.,

TRIPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing, saying, hearing-
QUADRUPLE STRENGTH LEARNING: Seeing , saying , hearing, writing!!!

an ongoing process.
Day One

After you have read and recited the entire chapter,
write questions in the margins for those points you have highlighted or underlined.

If you took notes while reciting,
write questions for the notes you have taken in the left hand margins of your notebook.

Day Two

Page through the text and/or your notebook to re-acquaint yourself with the important points.

Cover the right hand column of your text/note-book and orally ask yourself the questions in the left hand margins.

Orally recite or write the answers from memory.

Make "flash cards" for those questions which give you difficulty.

Develop mnemonic devices for material which need to be memorized.

Days Three, Four and Five

Alternate between your flash cards and notes and test yourself (orally or in writing) on the questions you formulated.

Make additional flash cards if necessary.


Using the text and notebook, make a Table of Contents - list all the topics and sub-topics you need to know from the chapter.
From the Table of Contents, make a Study Sheet/ Spatial Map.
Recite the information orally and in your own words as you put the Study Sheet/Map together.

Now that you have consolidated all the information you need for that chapter, periodically review the Sheet/Map so that at test time you will not have to cram.

Technique in testing By: Harold S. Madsen

I. Introduction
The importance of testing
What is the important of testing?
The important of testing is can make our language perfect. Also we know our ability in language.
Test Classification
What is test classification?
Test classification is a test that has the advantage of measuring language skills. Like translation and essay test.
This chapter explains that Testing is an important part of every teaching and learning experience. By testing we can know our ability in language.

II. Vocabulary Test
Multiple choice completions
What is the usage of multiple choice completions?
The function is to make the student depend on context clues and sentence meaning. This kind of item is constructed by deleting a word from a sentence.
Advantages of multiple choice completions
What are the advantages of multiple choice completions?
The advantages are help students see the full meaning of words by providing natural context. Also it is a sensitive measure of achievement.
Advantages of simple completion
What are the advantages of simple completion?
The advantages are reflects teaching approach and it is generally faster and easier to construct than are items with distracters.
This chapter discuss about Vocabulary test is a test in which a sentence with one word underlined is given. So the students just choose which one the correct answer.

III. Grammar Tests
Limitations of limited response
What is limitation of limited response?
It is individual testing takes longer than group testing and it is difficult to find suitable picture.
Simple completion (sentences)
What is simple completion in sentence?
Simple completion in sentences is testing grammar consist of a sentence from which a grammatical element has been removed.
Scoring the Cloze
How to score the close?
First give credit for only the exact word from the story, next is allow full credit for equivalent word as well. Both methods rank students about the same, but student feel strongly that the second method is fairer.
This chapter explains about the function of grammar testing and it is to measure student proficiency in matters ranging from inflections to syntax. Syntax involves the relationship of words in a sentence, including matters such as word order.

IV. Pronunciation Tests
Reading aloud
How to read aloud?
By using lists of sentences, evaluate only one or two points per sentences. Then use natural languages so avoid signaling to the student which pronunciation point we are testing.
Advantages of Reading Aloud items
What are the advantages of Reading Aloud items?
They are easy t prepare, provide god control, test almost all pronunciation features and can test how to pronounce spelling combination.
This chapter explains that in pronunciation tests presents a variety of ways to evaluate student’s production and identification of the sound, stress pattern, and intonation of English.

V. Reading Tests
Question techniques for beginners
What the approach of question techniques for beginners?
The approach of question techniques is true false items and the matching technique. True false items are rather easy to prepare, and for beginning students they are easier that regular multiple choice items.
Passage Comprehension
What are the functions of Passage comprehension?
The functions are integrative type of reading test, objective and easy to score and evaluate students at every level of reading development.
This chapter explains about how to make some testing for beginner reader and good reader.

VI. Writing Tests
Guided writing
What is the objective of guided writing?
The objective in guided writing test is to check student ability to handle controlled or directed writing tasks. One way is to make certain kinds of changes in a story text manipulation.
Advantages of guided writing test
What are advantages of guided writing test?
The advantage is rather quick and easy to construct. Also provide appropriate control for those students who are not ready to write on their own.
Dictation test
What is the dictation test?
The dictation test is one of the easiest tests to use, and it gives very god information on the student’s language ability. But this is true only if you prepare it right, present it right and score it right.
This chapter explains about writing test. Start from preparation until how we preface it

VII. Listening Tests
Listening skills
Limited response of listening skill
What the advantages of limited response of listening skill?
the advantages are involves flexible techniques, the question are generally quite easy to prepare and limited response items are generally rather objective as well as quick and easy to score.
This chapter explains about variety of ways to test the listening comprehension of beginning students.

VIII. Speaking Tests
Oral interview
What is oral interview?
Oral interview is test of speaking by talking with someone. The oral interview can provide a genuine sense of communication.
Advantages of the Oral Interview
What are the advantages of oral interview?
It can be one of the most communicative of all language examinations and it is scoring tends to be more consistent and simple than the scoring of many guided technique items.
This chapter explains about interview and advantages of interview itself.

IX. Evaluating Tests
Why do we need detractor evaluation?
Because sometimes is an item that was drilled heavily in class an item that almost everyone has mastered.
This chapter explains that we really need an evaluating test.

List of illustration:
- Table 1 = contrasting categories of ESL tests
- Table 2 = hearing identification
- Table 3 = the children are playing on their new toy
- Table 4 = calculation the level of difficulty

Discussion as A Way of Teaching By: Stephen D. Brookfield and Stephen Preskill

Discussion in democratic society
How does discussion in democratic society?
Discussion in democratic society is a way to provides with the opportunity to serve and connect with others, and it’s also test the ability to confront the most difficult problems and make think them through collaboratively.
This chapter explains about the important of discussion in democratic society
How Discussion helps learning and enlivens classroom
How Discussion helps learning and enlivens classroom?
Discussion helps learning and enlivens classroom. It is true, because learning through discussion give them some of benefits. There are:
1. It helps student explore a diversity of perspective
2. It increases students’ awareness
3. It helps students recognize and investigate their assumption
4. It increase intellectual agility
5. It helps students become connected to a topic
6. It shows respect for students’ voice and experience
7. It affirms students as co creator of knowledge
8. It develops habits of collaborative learning
This chapter explains about benefits of discussion in classroom activity.

Preparing for discussion
How to prepare a discussion?
Teacher cannot expect students to share a common understanding of the term discussion. So teacher must earn the right to ask students to take the process seriously by discussion. To start a discussion teacher and students must have preparation. What the teacher must do is use lectures model democratic talk, use critical incident questionnaires, students and teacher must have knowledge of what they discuss.
This chapter discuss about what the members of discussion must do for discussion.
Getting discussion started
What the teacher must do at start of discussion?
Some of activities that the teacher must do are:
1. Declaring a classroom speech policy
2. Debriefing preparatory work
3. Recalling a memorable experiences
4. Telling tales from the trenches
This chapter explains some activity that the teacher must do at start of discussion.
Keeping discussion going through questioning, listening, and responding
How to keep discussion going through questioning, listening, and responding?
Discussion through Questioning:
They can give question that ask for more evidence. Ex: how do you know that?
They can give question that ask for clarification. Ex: what do you mean by that?
Discussion through listening:
They must listen carefully of what the speaker talk.
Discussion through responding: they can give comment of what speaker talk.
This chapter explains the way of good discussion.
Keeping discussion going through creative grouping
How to keep discussion going through creative grouping?
Members of group discussion must be active and share their own idea. And members consist of variety students.
This chapter explains of how to make members of group creative when they discuss something.
Discussion in culturally diverse classroom
How does discussion in culturally diverse classroom?
Diversity exists in every classroom. Even students who look and sound the same can have very different backgrounds, experiences, and ideology.
This chapter has provided just a few of the innumerable strategies for assisting people in doing a better job of communication across differences.
Keeping students’ voice in balance
How to keep students’ voice in balance?
Teacher must prevent student when he talks too much, and give a chance to others to share their idea.
This chapter discuss about the student who talk too much.
Evaluating discussion
How to evaluate discussion?
To evaluate discussion teacher can make discussion audit instruction and course portfolio.
This chapter discuss about how to evaluate a discussion.